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About Uterine Fibroids

In this section, you or a loved one can find out more about medical treatments, research studies and practical information about uterine fibroids. Read on to find answers to some of your questions as well as links to other information. Being informed is an important first step towards becoming an active decision-maker in your care plan.

What Are Uterine Fibroids?

Uterine fibroids, sometimes also called leiomyomas or myomas, are non-cancerous growths made of muscle cells and other tissues that develop in the uterus (womb). They can be single or multiple, small or large, and located in various parts of the uterus. Depending on their number and size, they can lead to uterus enlargement. Fibroids are common in women in their 30s and 40s.

What Causes Uterine Fibroids?

The exact cause of uterine fibroids is unclear, but researchers believe they may be caused by genetic changes, an imbalance of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone, or other chemical signals within the body that cause them to grow. Characteristics that can increase the chance that a woman may develop uterine fibroids are having a close relative who has had them, being overweight, getting your first period at an early age and other factors.

What Are the Effects of Uterine Fibroids?

Uterine fibroids do not always cause symptoms, but when they do, the following bleeding and non-bleeding symptoms may occur. Heavy menstrual bleeding (heavy periods) is the most common symptom of fibroids that may cause severe anaemia (too little iron in your blood). Heavy periods may also be associated with cramps (menstrual pain).

Non-bleeding (bulk) symptoms are related to the size of uterus and location of the fibroids in the uterus. They include the following symptoms:

  • Abdominal or pelvic pain
  • Abdominal or pelvic pressure
  • Abdominal or pelvic cramping
  • Back pain
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Urinary problems (for example, urinating too frequently or feeling a sudden need to urinate)
Which Body Parts Are Affected?

The uterus is the part of the body most directly affected by uterine fibroids, but women may experience pain or pressure related to urination or bowel movements.

Lifestyle options

For most women, regardless of having uterine fibroids or not, exercise, healthy eating and good sleeping habits are recommended. A healthy lifestyle can lead to an enhanced quality of life for most people. Talk to your doctor before making any lifestyle changes.

Are There Other Complications?

The types and severity of symptoms can differ from woman to woman. Many different factors can affect an individual's experience with uterine fibroids, but some of the more troublesome complications include:

  • Pregnancy problems: Maintaining pregnancy can be more difficult and fibroids can contribute to miscarriage. Fibroids can cause the placenta to separate from the wall of the uterus, a condition called placental abruption, which can deprive the foetus of oxygen. Fibroids can also cause a breech foetal position or induce preterm delivery. Labour may also fail to progress. Women with fibroids are more likely to require a caesarean section.
Medical and Surgical Treatments

Interventions for uterine fibroids can differ widely from woman to woman. Therefore, treatment plans are usually tailored to each woman's unique circumstances. A woman should work closely with her doctor to create a treatment plan that is right for her.


When uterine fibroids cause symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, the first treatment that a doctor may prescribe is medication that helps regulate menstrual cycles.  These medications may include oral contraceptives or progestogens. Women with fibroids may receive a progestogen-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) to reduce bleeding. Doctors may also recommend non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen) to relieve pain, as well as vitamin D and iron to combat the anaemia that can be associated with heavy bleeding.


Women with fibroids who do not want to have their uterus removed may elect for a “myomectomy”, in which the fibroids are removed, either laparoscopically (through a small incision), hysteroscopically (through the vagina and cervix) or abdominally (through a larger abdominal incision). Hysterectomy, or removal of the entire uterus, with or without the removal of the ovaries, remains the only permanent solution for uterine fibroids. Hysterectomy is a major surgery that ends the ability to have children and brings on menopause (if the ovaries are removed).

Other procedures

Some women with fibroids may have uterine artery embolisation (UAE), in which a substance is injected into an artery to cut off the blood supply to the fibroids. This procedure is used to starve the fibroids, causing them to die. MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is a treatment that heats up and destroys fibroid tissue without damaging the entire uterus. Myolysis is a surgery performed through a small incision that uses an electric current or laser to destroy the fibroids. Cryomyolysis achieves the same effect through freezing.


Please note that the information on this website is intended for informational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for seeking medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat a medical condition or health problem. Speak to a healthcare provider if you have any questions about your health, medical condition, symptoms or treatment options.


NHS patients Choices

The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists is the specialty’s leading professional membership organisation dedicated to women’s health.

The Office on Women’s Health is part of the US Department of Health and Human Services and works to improve the health and sense of well-being of all US women and girls through informing policy, educating the public and education professionals, and supporting model programmes.


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